Supercomputers are superior in speed than computers in ordinary homes using innovative designs in the form of cabinets that allow them to do many tasks in parallel, and also complicated civil details. This computer is usually devoted to certain calculations, usually counting numbers, and not good results in general tasks. The memory hierarchy is carefully designed to ensure that the processor still receives data and instructions at all times, in reality, differences in performance with ordinary computers are located in the memory hierarchy and its components. The I/O system is also designed so that it can support wide bandwidth.
Supercomputers are computers that lead in the world in process capacity, especially the speed of calculations, at the beginning of their introduction. Supercomputers introduced in the 1960s, designed by Seymour Cray in Control Data Corporation (CDC), led the market in the 1970s until Cray stopped to form his own company, Cray Research.
He then took the supercomputer market with his design, becoming a supercomputer leader for 25 years (1965-1990). In the 1980s several small competitors entered the market, which coincided with the creation of mini computers in the previous decade. Today, the supercomputer market is held by IBM and HP, even though Cray Inc. still specializing in making supercomputers.