A soldier was originally a warrior who was fighting against a soldier (so not by virtue of a loan or a charter). Nowadays 'soldier' a military rank (in the Netherlands one speaks in such low grades of positions). Soldiers or sailors (men) belong to the so-called ungraduated Personnel of the armed forces. They take care of all lower executive tasks and can be deployed for various services within the unit of the armed forces to which they belong.
A soldier, in its most general sense, is an individual who has voluntarily enlisted or in compliance with a mandatory military service, in the armed forces of a sovereign country, receiving training and equipment to defend that country and its interests. As a member of these armed forces, he becomes an organized military in the army. Within the army groups of soldiers are generally divided into bodies or weapons of different denominations, such as infantry, seamen, artillery, cavalry, etc.
The term soldier also refers to a range, usually the lowest in the ranks (also known as private).
Within the scope of the countries that are part of NATO, the level of private soldier corresponds to the code OR-1 according to the STANAG 2116 standard that standardizes the degrees of military personnel.
The word Castilian soldier is one of the most widespread throughout the world: the numerous languages have borrowed, especially in Asia and Oceania, as tagalo sundalo or Chamorros sendalo or sindalu.
A soldier is not necessarily a fighter. Although all soldiers receive some type of basic combat training, many perform services in positions other than combat (such as administrative, logistic tasks, or research and development).
Soldiers in the Dutch armed forces
Within the Dutch armed forces, the position of soldier only occurs at the Royal Netherlands Army and Royal Netherlands Air Force. At the Royal Netherlands Navy he or she is called sailor and at the Marine Corps, marine. At the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee, the positions of Marechaussee 4th and 3rd class correspond.
Within the Dutch armed forces the rank of soldier (abbreviated 'sld') has since 2002 been subdivided into three classes:
- Soldier of the third class (follows the General Military Training),
- Soldier of the second class (has completed the AMO and follows the Initial Function Training),
- Soldier of the first class (automatic promotion, 1 year after completion of the IFO).
During the training a soldier is called a recruit or "student". A soldier can be promoted to corporal.
The title of title (soldier) differs for some weapons and service subjects:
- at the cavalry: hussar,
- at the artillery: gunner,
- at the moving artillery: driver,
- with the Limburgse Jagers: hunter,
- for the grenadiers: grenadier,
- at the fuseliers: fuselier,
- for the commands: command.
The military service has traditionally been compulsory for men. In ancient Greece, Sparta was a clear example of a militarized society since free men received strong training from children and their entire lives were committed to the militia. The Roman army was one of the first to frame professional soldiers permanently.
Most countries have an army, either professional (United States), with replacement soldiers, that is, from mandatory recruitment (Russia) or by combining both systems. Some armies admit women in their ranks. In Israel, military service is mandatory for both sexes. There are some countries without Armed Forces, such as Costa Rica and Panama, that base the defense of their territorial integrity on a system of international alliances and treaties.
At the time of the Roman Republic and before the time of Cayo Mario, family customs regarding the children who would one day be soldiers were the following:
- At 17, the father gave the son a chainmail, a helmet, a sword, a dagger and spurs.
- The mother gave him the caligae, the cover for the shield, the bag, a mane of mane and the sagum or military cape.
- The sisters, if any, wove the socks and made six or seven robes.
These gifts were for life and, if kept in good condition, were part of the inheritance.
Functions in the army
A soldier can have a field, command activity. Indeed, the implementation of an army requires a significant logistics and military command component. These different functions are often referred to as "steps": command level, logistics level, operational level.
Among the operational jobs, there are:
- the rider: member of the cavalry (on horseback in the past, this term today designates the armored weapon),
- the infantryman (soldier on foot): member of the infantry,
- the sailor: member of the navy,
- the aviator: member of the air force,
- the sapper, a member of military engineering,
- the artilleryman, member of the artillery,
- the signalman, member of communications (eg communications in the French army),
- the gendarme, member of the gendarmerie.
Military command generally follows the hierarchy, reflected by rank.
Budget military personnel
The overall cost of a soldier to the State which employs him (pay, training, food, housing, insurance, materials, retirement, invalidity pensions, etc.) varies greatly according to the situation. While the vast majority of soldiers from Antiquity had to pay for their equipment, a situation that prevailed until the Middle Ages with knights having their own harness, it is now provided in the vast majority by regular armies.
A simple conscript employed as an infantryman in the industrial wars of the early xx century and in Third World States obviously costs much less than a professional fighter pilot 2000s whose formation stretches over the years.
Extreme case, a military career in the armed forces of the United States, signing the planting to the employment contract, costs an average of five million US dollars to the Defense Department in 2005 and these costs keep 'increase.
The deployment of well-equipped troops in theaters of distant operations is also expensive.
In 2010, a Canadian Forces soldier from the International Assistance and Security Force in Afghanistan, a landlocked country with no significant infrastructure, returns, without pay, without initial routing, to approximately 525,000 Canadian dollars (350,000 euros), expenditure per soldier hired overseas averaging 5.16 million euros per year in the European Union in 2011. For the basic support and functioning of a soldier engaged in external operations, on average, still in the European Union, 16 soldiers and 15 civilians are required at home (35 soldiers and 15 civilians in Germany, 8 soldiers and 2 civilians in France, 9 soldiers and 4 civilians in the United Kingdom).
The missions of a soldier (doctrine of the use of forces)
Within the framework of his engagement in the armed forces of his country, the soldier voluntarily compels himself to serve the defense of the vital interests of the country, as defined by his government, and under the orders of his hierarchical superiors (officers general). The missions that the soldier performs in the army correspond to 3 main axes:
- Protection of the national territory and its nationals, in particular via martial law,
- Participation in security and information alert systems,
- Peacekeeping or peacemaking abroad and/or under international mandate.
These 3 main axes, which determine the action of the armed forces of a country, are manifested by a wide and varied range of missions where the supreme risk of being killed while exercising one's profession - which is characteristic of the military profession - is not conditioned by the vital nature for the country of the missions entrusted to it. The defense of the integrity of the national soil and territory is at the forefront of the particular commitment of members of the armed forces, whether they are non-commissioned members, officers, volunteers recruited from the civilian population or conscripts.
It is in such an eventuality that the soldiers train to fight or even to support the troops engaged at the front of the front. A permanent response capacity which also puts the war professional in a position to be engaged in less intense operations, on the territory or outside the borders. They include the fight against terrorism, chemical and bacteriological threats, monitoring of heaven, etc.
This preparation for combat readiness also offers the government the opportunity to send the military to exercise their talents outside the borders of their country, by engaging them in peacekeeping operations under international mandate, or in civil action. -military which is often a corollary of the first option.