Bhagat Singh was one of the revolutionaries who participated in the Indian independence movement. The sense of martyr Shaheed Bhagat Singh was called. He is considered a martyr who fought against the British occupation and became a martyr. He was involved in the Lahore conspiracy and was sentenced to death by the British government. From his early years, Bhagat Singh had worked against the British Raj. The books on the revolutionary organizations in Europe that he had read at the time were also anarchist brought closer to Marxism. Historians describe him as one of the first Marxists in India to prefer armed struggle over non-violent means.
He surrendered to the police in the Lahore conspiracy case in connection with the bombing of the Central Legislative Assembly in Lahore. Although there were means of escape from the police, Bhagat Singh and his men surrendered to the police, hoping that their ideas and intentions might be realized by the British authorities. Bhagat Singh fasted for 63-day, demanding that all prisoners receive the same treatment. This earned him great popularity. John Sounder Bhagat Singh's involvement in the murder of a policeman was also proved. Bhagat Singh was tried in the Lahore conspiracy case and sentenced to death at the age of twenty-three. It is believed that the life of Bhagat Singh later inspired many youths to enter the Indian Independence Movement.
Bhagat Singh was born into a Sikh family in Banga in the Punjabi district of Layalpur (present-day Pakistan). He was the third son of Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidyavati. The Singh family was actively involved in the struggle for freedom. Indeed, Bhagat's father and uncle (Ajit Singh) were members of the Ghadr Party, founded in the United States in order to oust the British law. The family atmosphere has therefore strongly influenced the young Bhagat. While studying at the DAV School in Lahore in 1916, he came into contact with well-known political leaders such as Lala Lajpat Rai and Ras Bihari Bose. Punjab was very politically tense at that time. In 1919, Bhagat, then 12 years old, was deeply traumatized by the Jalianwala Bagh massacre. The day after the massacre, he kept a little land of Jalianwala Bagh which he kept as a memory all his life. This episode reinforced his determination to drive the British out of India.
Birth and Family
Bhagat Singh was born on September 28, 1907 in a Sikh farming family in Banga village in Pakistan's Lialpur district, now part of Pakistan. His father Sardar Kishan Singh, Mother Vidyavati. Bhagat was the couple's second son and the first son, Jagat Singh, died at the age of eleven. The father and two paternal brothers, who had been imprisoned for the freedom struggle, were released on the day of Bhagat Singh's birth. The grandmother was named Bhagonwala, which means "lucky child." Bhagat Singh was later named by the name Bhagat Singh. Some of Bhagat Singh's relatives were freedom fighters and some served as Maharaja Ranjit Singh's soldiers. Bhagat's grandfather was a member of the Arya Samaj led by Swami Dayananda saraswati. The nature and way of life of Swami Dayananda saraswati has greatly influenced Bhagat. Like other Sikhs of that time, Bhagat did not attend school. His grandfather did not like going to schools under British rule. Bhagat completed his primary education at the Dayananda Anglo Vedic High School, which was led by him.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place in India when Bhagat Singh was 12 years old. The shooting of innocent people infuriated this young man. The next day, Bhagat visited Jallianwala Bagh and greeted him with a small bottle of blood and mud collected in his room. This is an example of how patriotism blossomed in Bhagat's life as a child. At the age of 13, when the Mahatma Gandhi Non-Cooperation Movement began in 1920, Bhagat Singh became an active member of the movement. As a result of his civil disobedience, Bhagat left the Anglo-Vedic School at the National College, Lahore. Bhagat was equally focused on curriculum and extracurricular activities. Bhagat's favorite subjects were history and politics. Bhagat was very fond of interacting with friends on subjects he learned in class. Bhagat was an active member of the university's theater troupe. This is where the friendship of Bhagat Sukhdev and Bhagwati Charan Vohra begins. In addition to his day-to-day teaching, Lala Lajpat Rai was also taking classes on patriotism. Such classes greatly influenced Bhagat. There was a close relationship between Vidyalankar and Bhagat. Bhagat was not able to adapt to the non-violent struggle of Gandhiji. This is because Britain was armed, even by these unarmed fighters. The British killed innocent villagers in the riots that followed the Chauri Chaura incident the army were executed. Such events reinforced Bhagat's resolve to take the path of revolution. Bhagat has specialized in five different languages. He began working with a variety of organizations he saw as struggling with his goals. In 1924, his parents arranged a divorce for him, and Bhagat Singh declined the offer, saying, "As long as India is free, my bride will be dead." To escape the pressures of his parents to get married, he left home and went to Kanpur. There, in a printing press called Pratap Press Joined the job and began studying revolutionary literature in his spare time.
In December 1928, Bhagat Singh and an associate, Shivaram Rajguru, shot dead a 21-year-old British police officer, John Saunders, in Lahore, British India, confusing Saunders, who was still on parole, with the British police superintendent, James Scott, whom they intended to murder. They believed Scott was responsible for the death of popular Indian nationalist leader Lala Lajpat Rai by ordering a charge of a police action in which Rai was injured and, two weeks later, died of a heart attack. Saunders was shot down by a single shot from Rajguru, a sniper. He was shot several times by Singh, the post-mortem report showed eight gunshot wounds. Another Singh associate, Chandra Shekhar Azad, shot dead an Indian police officer, Chanan Singh, who tried to chase Singh and Rajguru while fleeing.
After fleeing, Singh and his associates used publicly owned aliases to avenge Lajpat Rai's death, posted posters that had been altered to target Saunders. Singh was on the run for many months and no conviction resulted at that time. He resurfaced in April 1929, when he and another associate, Batukeshwar Dutt, blew up two makeshift bombs within the Central Legislative Assembly of Delhi. They threw gallery leaflets at the legislators, shouted slogans and then allowed the authorities to arrest them. The arrest and the resulting publicity had the effect of bringing to light Singh's complicity in the John Saunders case. While awaiting trial, Singh gained much sympathy from the public after he joined defendant Jatin Das on a hunger strike, demanding better prison conditions for Indian prisoners, which culminated in Das's starvation in September 1929. Singh was convicted and hanged in March 1931 at the age of 23.
Bhagat Singh became a popular national hero after his death. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote of him: "Bhagat Singh did not become popular because of his act of terrorism, but because he seemed to claim, at the time, the honor of Lala Lajpat Rai, and through him, of the nation. He became a symbol, his act was forgotten, the symbol remained, and within a few months every town and village of Punjab and to a lesser extent the rest of northern India resonated with his name."
The break with the movement of non-cooperation Gandhi
In response to Mahatmah Gandhi's call for non-cooperation in 1921, Bhagat Singh left school and took an active part in the movement. In 1922, when Gandhi suspended him from violence at Chauri-chaura in Gorakhpur, Bhagat was greatly disappointed. His faith in non-violence weakened and he concluded that the armed revolution was the only way to gain independence. He joined Lahore National College, founded by Lala Lajpat Rai, to continue his studies. It was there that he met revolutionaries such as Bhagwati Charan, Sukhdev and others. In order to avoid the marriage, Bhagat Singh fled from his home to Kanpur where he came in contact with a revolutionary named Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi and had his first lessons on the revolution. But learning that his grandmother was sick, he went home and continued his activities in his village. In Lahore, he formed the Naujavan Bharat Sabha, and began to spread his message of revolution in Punjab. In 1928, he came into contact with Chandrasekhar Azad in Delhi with whom he formed the Hindustan Samajvadi Prajatantra Sangha whose goal was to establish a republic in India by a revolution.
In February 1928, an English committee named Simon Commission came to India. The purpose of this visit was to decide how much freedom and responsibility could be given to the people. But there was no Indian on the committee. In retaliation, the Indians decided to boycott the commission. During a demonstration against it in Lahore, police knocked Lala Lajpat Rai, who died eighteen days later of a heart attack that his supporters said was a result of the blows he had received. Bhagat Singh was determined to avenge his death by shooting down the British officer responsible for the murder, Deputy Inspector General Scott. But he fired on Assistant Superintendent Saunders, mistaking him for Scott. Bhagat Singh had to flee Lahore to avoid the death penalty.
The government gave more power to the police, to stop seditious protests. This act failed to pass to the Central Legislative Assembly with one vote. Nevertheless, it had to be in the form of an order "in the public interest". Bhagat, who was hidden in attendance, volunteered to throw a bomb at the assembly. He took care not to cause any death or injury as the purpose was to attract the attention of the Government. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were arrested by not fleeing deliberately. During trial, Bhagat refused any defense counsel. He and Dutt were sentenced to life imprisonment.
The trial of Bhagat Singh and Dutta in connection with the bombing of the assembly began on 7 May 1929. There was much controversy and arguments regarding the testimony of the court. The main controversy was when Bhagat Singh was arrested, the gun he had in his hand. Sergeant Terry, a police officer arrested at the assembly hall, testified that Bhagat was holding the gun down when he was arrested. Sobha Singh, a well-known businessman in the Assembly Hall, claimed that Bhagat Singh had fired three times from the gun. He was produced before the court. Shobha Singh is the father of Khushwant Singh, who later became a famous writer. Historian and writer Khushwant Singh Cooner argues that Bhagat was carrying the pistol that day, a fatal mistake. Cooner goes on to say, "If Bhagat intended to surrender peacefully to the police, he would not have carried the gun in his hand." Police later testified with court evidence that Saunders was fired from the same gun. The case came before a judge named Leonard Middleton. There was an advocate for Dutt, but Bhagat Singh himself produced his own arguments. The police searched the area where the bombs were used to plant the bomb in Lahore and arrested others. The youngest of the group, Prem Dutt, a revolutionary, revolted against a friend, Jayagopal, who collapsed during a court trial. This has caused a rivalry in the court of law. The court ordered all offenders to be taken into custody. All of them apologized for the wrong they had done, but the court refused to show mercy. The trial was scheduled to be held in the absence of the accused. This was a big blow to Bhagat, who had decided to use the courtroom as a platform to convey his ideas to the outside world.
The death penalty
On March 24, 1931, the court ordered the execution. However, Bhagat Singh was sentenced to death for 11 hours without any advance notice. On March 23, 1931, at 7:30 pm, Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru and Sukh Dev were hanged. Without informing relatives or friends who were waiting outside, the walls of the jail's rear wall were burnt and the bodies burned in the village of Gandha Singh Wala, 60 km from Lahore. The ashes were thrown into the Sutlej River.
It is said that although Bhagat Singh was in prison he could have been saved from the death penalty, but Mahatma Gandhi did not. It is said that Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi conspired with the British to speed up Bhagat Singh's execution. Gandhi's supporters face this criticism by saying that Gandhi had no influence over the UK's decision to abolish Bhagat Singh's death sentence. Likewise Gandhi in India's freedom struggle he added that Bhagat Singh posed no threat to Pank. Gandhi had always praised Bhagat Singh's patriotism and had opposed the death penalty from the very beginning. I have always opposed the death penalty, and Gandhiji's assertions that Gandhi is not the only one who is entitled to retrieve the life of God. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact secured the release of nearly 90,000 political prisoners. Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru, Sukhdev day of the holy decided to implement the death penalty and the execution of a letter in the morning Gandhi had been given. The letter pointed out that he and his followers, quoted by exchanging signs of Gandhi too late.
Baba Randhir, a fellow inmate of Bhagat Singh in the jail, talked to him about God and religion. Singh, however, sent him back saying he had no faith in any of these matters. He also asked Randhir why he would give such suffering to the man himself, if you believe in God. This question angered Randhir and he spoke harshly to Bhagat. In response to this referendum, Bhagat wrote why I became an atheist. However, he later became a Sikh Randhir said he was interested in doing religious rituals to change. The British jails, however, rejected this demand. This evidence has been disproved by historians because Randhir is the only person who has knowledge of the incident and also rejects the possibility that a person who has lived as an atheist for the rest of his life is at death.
Shaheed Bhagat Singh was deeply attracted to Marxist thought. One of the ideals of Shaheed Bhagat Singh was to reconstruct the future of India in accordance with Marxist principles. Since 1926 he has studied the progress of the revolutionary movement in India and abroad. While in prison, Bhagat read a lot of books. His fellow prisoners recall that he read a number of books, including the Communist Manifesto, Das Capital, and the French Revolution, including books by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. He wrote a pamphlet on why I became an atheist in Bhagat Prison.