Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (Abdullah ibn Abu Qahafa) (Arabic: عبد الله بن أبي قحافة) (Mecca, c. 573 - 634) was a friend, faithful ally, and father-in-law of the Muslim prophet Mohammed. His father's name was Uthman Abu Quhafa and his mother Salma Umm-ul-Khair. Abu Bakr had a total of six children with four women.
His birth name was Abdullah. He was named Abu Bakr (Bakr's father) after his conversion. Muhammad also gave him the nickname as-Siddiq, which means the true one.
Abu Bakr was a wealthy trader and one of the first to convert to Islam. He also played a role in the conversion of prominent Muhammad's companions, including Uthman ibn Affan, Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Talha ibn Ubydydullah, Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah and the African slave Bilaal Ibn Rabaah', whom he had redeemed. After the emigration to Medina - the first wife of Mohammed, Khadija had died a year earlier - Abu Bakr offered his daughter Aisha to Mohammed as a wife.
According to Islamic Traditions, Abu Bakr is one of the ten people who were testified that they were destined for Paradise. Abu Bakr also belongs to the so-called' Four Right-Guided Caliphs'.
It is said that Abu Bakr and Ali passed on the esoteric doctrine that was later called tasawoef or Sufism.
The name Abū Bakr (رضي الله عنه) is actually an appellation that is usually translated as "One with whom Allah is pleased." This name has become a frequent proper name throughout the Islamic world (with variations such as Bubker, Babacar, Boubacar, Ebubekir, etc.). As-Siddīq is also an appellation that means 'The Sincere', their descendants are called siddīqī. His original first name was 'Abd al-Ka'ba, this is' Servant of the Kaaba', which changed to' Abd Al•lāh ('Servant of God') after his conversion to Islam.
Mercader in Mecca and member of the tribe of Quraysh, was the first man outside the family, the new religion preached by Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), became whom he accompanied into exile (hijrah) in Medina. He became Muhammad's father-in-law (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) when Muhammad married his daughter Aisha (ض الله عنهما). When the prophet fell ill, he appointed (according to the Sunnis) Abū Bakr (رضي الله عنه) to lead the prayer instead, which was interpreted to Muhammad's death (صلی الله علیه و آله و سلم) as I wish that Abū Bakr (رضي الله عنه) be his successor. So, in 632 He became the first person who bore the title of caliph, that is, of 'successor of the Messenger of God' (خليفة رسول الله jalīfat Rasūl Allāh). His choice was answered by Ali ibn Abi Tálib (رضي الله عنه) (once again, according to the Sunni version), Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), who claimed the succession for himself. Ali (رضی الله عنه) finally abided by the election of Abū Bakr (رضی الله عنه), but this divergence would lead years later to the division of Muslims into three branches: Sunni, Shiite and Jaariyí.
The same year of his election, tribal revolts broke out in the regions of Hiyaz and Néyed, the first rejected Islam and the second was caused by the refusal to pay the zakat tax to the caliphate. The caliph stifled both revolts, although he had to face strong oppositions, the most important of which was led by Musailma. This was finally defeated by Jálid ibn al-Walid (رضی الله عنه) in the battle of Akraba, after which the Arabian Peninsula was definitely attached to the Islamic state. Having accomplished this, Abū Bakr (رضي الله عنه) directed his generals towards the conquest of other territories:Iraq was taken from the Sassanid Empire by Jálid ibn Walid (رضی الله عنه) in a single campaign.
During his rule, the first compilation of the Quran was made, which until then was only recited by heart.
Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) died on August 23 of 634 in Medina. Shortly before his death, attributed by some to poisoning and by others to natural causes, he named Umar ibn al-Jattab (رضي الله عنه) a successor, an election that was ratified by the community (according to the Bakris/Sunnis), again with the opposition of Ali (رضی الله عنه) and his supporters (according to Shiites), although without any serious incident. He is buried next to Muhammad (صلی الله علیه و آله و سلم) and Omar (رضي الله عنه) in the Mosque of the Prophet of Medina.
After the death of Mohammed
After the death of Mohammed in 632, Abu Bakr was almost unanimously voted by the prominent sahaba and by some of the ansar, but in haste, the first Caliph of the Muslim community. He became Caliph on June 8, 632. In the Islamic Traditions it is known that Omar ibn al-Chattab played an important and decisive role in the appointment of Abu Bakr to Caliph and he was also the first Muslim to swear by him. However, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law Ali were not present. Ali's supporters did not agree with the designation of Abu Bakr, who they use as usurpatorsaw, to Caliph once. They believed that the Caliph could not be elected, but that the leadership naturally passes to a member of the family of Muhammad, in this case Ali. According to them, the caliph must therefore have a direct blood relationship with Mohammed. The Sunni Muslims reject this theology and believe that faith in God and in His messenger is completely independent of family or blood ties. The appointment of Abu Bakr as a caliph is confirmed by the Sunnis by the fact that Mohammed allowed Abu Bakr to pray in the mosque when he was sick.
Abu Bakr, during his short but powerful leadership, conquered all opposition from rebellious Bedouin tribes in Arabia, thereby adding the entire Arabian Peninsula to the Caliphate. Under his leadership, the first major territories were conquered by the Muslims: Syria and Mesopotamia.
In 634, two years after the death of Mohammed, Abu Bakr ordered the collection of all Quranic verses revealed by Muhammad as a messenger. Many followers of Muhammad knew large parts of the Quran by heart and many were also written on parchment, tree bark and camel bone, but there was not yet a written standard version. Under Caliph Oethman, these collected texts were bundled together in the correct order and their copies were sent to all Islamic countries. The Quran is still authentic, that is, as revealed to Muhammad.
On his deathbed, Abu Bakr named Omar ibn al-Chattab as his successor. The Caliphate deed was recorded by Uthman ibn Affan.
Abu Bakr was called Khulafā ur Rasūlu-llah (Caliph of the Messenger) during his caliphate, while the Caliphs were named after him Amier-ul Mu'minien (Leader of the Believers).
Hadith about Abu Bakr
It has been reported within a Hadith that Mohammed ibn al-Hanafiyyah (the son of Ali ibn Abu Talib) said:
"I asked my father, Which of the people was the best after the Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him)?". He replied, "Abu Bakr." I asked, "Who next then Omar." I was afraid that he (then) Uthman would say, so I said, "Then are you?" he replied: "I am only one man among the Muslims." (Bukhari).
Also a Hadith is the following narrated by Jubair ibn Moet'im:
A woman came to the Prophet, he ordered her to return later. She said, "What if I come and would not you?" As if to say, "If I could find death?" The Prophet said, "If you would not find me, go to Abu Bakr." (Bukhari and Muslim)