The glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), also known as glioblastoma and astrocytoma grade IV, is the most common and aggressive type of malignant brain affecting cancer. Initial signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may include headache, personality changes, nausea, and stroke. Worsening of symptoms is usually rapid and may progress to unconsciousness. The etiology of these tumors is unknown, but risk factors include genetic abnormalities - such as neurofibromatosis and Li-Fraumeni syndrome and prior radiation therapy. Glioblastomas represent about 15% of brain tumors and can develop from normal glial cells or from an existing low-grade astrocytoma. The diagnosis is confirmed by examinations of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imagingand biopsy of the lesion. There is no known form of prevention for this type of tumor. Treatment is based on surgical resection of the tumor or part of it, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
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