Lenovo Group, Ltd. (in Chinese: 联想 集团, in pinyin: Liánxiǎng jítuán) is a multinational Chinese technology company, manufacturer of electronic products, computers, tablets and smartphones. Lenovo is an acronym for "Le" (pseudo-apocope of "legend") and "novo" (Latin pseudo for "new"), that is, "New Legend."
The company produces smartphones, PCs, servers, laptops, PDAs, tablets, netbooks, peripherals, printers, TVs, scanners, computer, memories, headphones and hands free for mobile phones. It also provides integration information technology and support services, and its QDI unit offers manufacturing contracts. The company also offers Internet access through its FM365.com portal.
Its main center is in Beijing, China. In addition, it has a headquarters in Morrisville, North Carolina, United States, the home of the ThinkPad group previously owned by IBM. Its shares are listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
Currently, 39.6% of Lenovo is owned by public partners, 42.4% of Legend Holdings, Limited, 7.9% of IBM and 10.1% of Texas Pacific Group, General Atlantic and Newbridge Capital LLC. Because the Chinese Academy of Sciences, an agency of the government of China, owns 65% of Legend Holdings, effectively the government of that country owns 27.5% of Lenovo and is therefore the majority partner.
In 2005, after the purchase of the IBM computer division, Lenovo became the world's leading international computer manufacturer in sales, consolidating again in 2013 when it surpassed HP in that distinction.
In November 2017, Lenovo buys Fujitsu's computer division for $157 million in order to secure supplies of computer components and thus lower costs.
Lenovo is a sponsor of Inter Milan. Lenovo's current corporate motto is "Innovation never stops."
Liu Chuanzhi Lenovo founded the 1 of November of 1984 with a group of ten engineers in Beijing with 200,000 yuan. The Chinese government approved the incorporation of Lenovo the same day. Jiǎ Xùfú (贾 续 福), one of the founders of Lenovo, indicates that the first meeting in preparation to start the company was held on October 17 of the same year. Eleven people, all initial staff, attended. Each of the founders was a middle-aged member of the Institute of Information Technology attached to the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 200,000 yuanused as initial capital were approved by Zēng Màocháo (曾 茂 朝). The name of the company agreed at this meeting was the New Technology Development Company of the Academy of Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Science.
His first major effort, an attempt to import televisions, failed. The group was rebuilt within a year by performing quality controls on computers for new buyers. Lenovo soon began developing a circuit board that allowed IBM- compatible personal computersProcess Chinese characters. This product was Lenovo's first big success. Lenovo also tried and did not market a digital watch. Liu said: “Our management team often differed on which commercial path to travel. This led to great discussions, especially between the chief engineer and me. He felt that if the quality of the product was good, then he would sell himself. I knew this was not true, that marketing and other factors were part of the final success of a product. The fact that his staff had little commercial experience exacerbated Lenovo's initial difficulties, "We were primarily scientists and we didn't understand the market," Liu said. "We just learned by trial and error, which was very interesting, but also very dangerous," said Liu. In 1990.
In May 1988, Lenovo placed its first hiring announcement. The announcement was placed on the main page of China Youth News. Such notices were quite rare in that China then. Of the 500 respondents, 280 were selected to take a written employment exam. 120 of these candidates were interviewed in person. Although initially the interviewers only had the authority to hire 16 people, 58 received offers. The new staff included 18 people with postgraduate degrees, 37 with undergraduate degrees and three students without college level education. His average age was 26. Yang Yuanqing, the current CEO of Lenovo, was among that group.
Liu Chuanzhi received permission from the government to form a subsidiary in Hong Kong and move there along with five other employees. Liu's father, who was already in Hong Kong, promoted his son's ambitions through mentoring and loan facilitation. Liu moved to Hong Kong in 1988. To save money during this period, Liu and his co-workers walked instead of taking public transportation. To keep up appearances, they rented hotel rooms for meetings.
IPO, second offers and bond sales
Lenovo is publicly traded after a quote in Hong Kong in 1994 that raised almost $30 million. Before its IPO, many analysts were optimistic about Lenovo. The company was praised for its good management, strong brand recognition and growth potential. Analysts also worried about Lenovo's profitability. Lenovo's initial public offering was massively subscribed. On its first day of operations, the company's stock price peaked at HK $2.07 and closed at HK $2.00. The proceeds from the offer were used to finance sales offices in Europe, North America and Australia, to expand and improve production and research and development, and to increase working capital.
When Lenovo first appeared, its managers thought that the only purpose of going public was to raise capital. They had little knowledge of the rules and responsibilities that accompanied the management of a public company. Before Lenovo conducted its first secondary offer in 1997, Liu proudly announced the company's intention to send newspapers to newspapers in the mainland, and its authorities suspended their stocks for two days to punish their statement. This happened several times until Liu learned that he had to choose his words carefully in public. The first time Liu traveled to EuropeIn a "roadshow" to talk about his company's actions, he was surprised by the skeptical questions he was subjected to and felt offended. Liu then understood that he was accountable to the shareholders. He said: «Before I only had one boss, but CAS never asked me anything. It depends on my own initiative to do things. We begin to think about credibility issues. The legend began learning to become a truly international 'enterprise'.
To finance its continued growth, Lenovo issued a secondary offer of 50 million shares in the Hong Kong market in March 2000 and raised approximately US $212 million.
Mary Ma, financial director of Lenovo between 1990 and 2007, was in charge of investor relations. Under his leadership, Lenovo successfully integrated Western-style accountability in its corporate culture. Lenovo's emphasis on transparency earned it a reputation for the best corporate governance among mainland Chinese firms. All major issues related to its board of directors, administration, transfers of principal shares and mergers and acquisitions were reported fairly and accurately. While the listed companies in Hong Kongthey should only issue financial reports twice a year, Lenovo followed the international standard of issuing quarterly reports. Lenovo created an audit committee and a compensation committee with non-administrative directors. The company started roadshows twice a year to meet institutional investors. Ma organized the first investor relations conference held in mainland China. The conference was held in Beijing in 2002 and was televised on CCTV. Liu and Ma co-sponsored the conference and both gave speeches on corporate governance.
The company underwent a restructuring and was separated into two entities. These were "Lenovo" and "Digital China Holdings Limited." Lenovo became the manufacturer of personal computers and Digital China a distributor of IT products and services.
In 2005 Lenovo definitely bought the IBM computer division, which made it the world's largest international computer manufacturer. Lenovo paid $1,270 million to IBM, which consisted of $655 million in cash and 600 in Lenovo shares. As a result of the acquisition, Lenovo obtained the rights to the product lines as well as registered trademarks such as ThinkPad, ThinkVision, ThinkVantage, ThinkCentre, NetVista, which subsequently helped complement the Aptiva, IdeaPad, IdeaCentre and Legion product lines. On May 1, 2005, IBM owned 19.9% of Lenovo.
In May 2015, Lenovo unveiled a new logo at Lenovo Tech World in Beijing, with the slogan "Innovation never stands still" (Chinese: 创新 无止境). Lenovo's new logo, created by Saatchi, New York, can be modified by its advertising agencies and sales partners, within the constraints, to adapt to the context. It has an "e" resting and is surrounded by a box that can be changed to use a relevant scene, a solid color or a photograph. Lenovo marketing director David Roman said: “When we started to see it, it wasn't just a change in the typography or logo look. We ask if we really are a customer-centric and network-oriented company. How should the logo be? First we came up with the idea of a digital logo.
In early June 2015, Lenovo announced plans to sell up to US $650 million in five-year bonds denominated in Chinese yuan. The bonds will be sold in Hong Kong with a coupon from 4.95% to 5.05%. This is only the second bond sale in Lenovo's history. Financial commentators noted that Lenovo was paying a premium to make a list of the yuan bonds given the relatively low costs for loans in US dollars.
Personal, business and player computing
Lenovo expanded significantly in 2005 through the acquisition of IBM's personal computer business, including its ThinkPad and ThinkCentre lines. As of January 2013, shipments of computers with the ThinkPad brand have doubled since Lenovo acquired the brand, with profit margins greater than 5%. Lenovo aggressively expanded the ThinkPad brandaway from traditional laptops in favor of tablets and hybrid devices such as ThinkPad Tablet 2, ThinkPad Yoga, ThinkPad 8, ThinkPad Helix and ThinkPad Twist, the change came in response to the growing popularity of mobile devices and the launch of Windows 8 in October 2012. Lenovo has achieved significant success with this high-value strategy and now controls more than 40% of the Windows computer market to a price above $900 in the United States.
The ThinkPad is a line of business- oriented laptops, known for their square black design, inspired by a traditional Japanese lunchbox. ThinkPads were originally an IBM product. They have been manufactured and sold by Lenovo since the beginning of 2005, after the acquisition of the IBM personal computers division. The ThinkPad has been used in space and is the only certified laptop for use on the International Space Station.
ThinkCentre is a line of business-oriented desktop computers that was introduced in 2003 by IBM (replacing the NetVista line) and has since been produced and sold by Lenovo since 2005. ThinkCentre computers typically include range processors medium to high, options for discrete graphics cards and compatibility with multiple monitors. As in the ThinkPad line of computers, in the past there have been budget lines of computers with the ThinkCentre brand. Some examples of this include: M55e series, A50 series, M72 series. However, these "budget" lines are usually "thin clients."
The ThinkServer product line began with the Lenovo TS100. The server was developed under an agreement with IBM, whereby Lenovo would produce single-socket and dual-socket servers based on IBM xSeries technology. An additional feature of the server design was a support package aimed at small businesses. The objective of this support package was to provide small businesses with software tools to facilitate the server management process and reduce dependence on IT support.
In June 2017, Lenovo's business development executive, Les Roach, stated that "we will make a clean redesign of our entire server portfolio. You will see all new models, new form factors, some denser offers and a new one brand. It won't be System X or ThinkServer. It will have a new look, but it will maintain basic engineering." The merger is scheduled for summer 2017.
Lenovo ThinkStations are workstations designed for high-level computing. In 2008, Lenovo expanded its THINK brand approach to include workstations, with the ThinkStation S10 being the first model released.
High-end monitors are marketed under the name ThinkVision. ThinkVision screens share a common design language with other THINK devices, such as the ThinkPad line of laptops and ThinkCentre desktops. At the International CES 2014, Lenovo announced the ThinkVision Pro2840m, a 28-inch 4K screen aimed at professionals. Lenovo also announced another 28-inch touchscreen device with Android that can work as an all-in-one PC or an external display for other devices.
At the International CES 2016, Lenovo announced two screens with USB-C connectivity and DisplayPort. The ThinkVision X24 Pro monitor is a thin, 1920 x 1080 pixel 24-inch bezel screen that uses an IPS LCD panel. The ThinkVision X1 is a 27-inch thin bezel screen of 3840 by 2160 pixels that uses a 10-bit panel with 99% coverage of the sRGB color gamut. The X24 includes a wireless charging base for mobile phones. The X1 is the first monitor to receive TUV Eye-Comfort certification. Both monitors have HDMI 2.0 ports, support charging laptops, mobile phones and other devices, and have Intel RealSense 3D cameras to support facial recognition. Both screens have dual matrix microphones and 3-watt stereo speakers.
The IdeaPad line of consumer-oriented laptops was introduced in January 2008. The IdeaPad is the result of Lenovo's own research and development. Unlike the ThinkPad line, its design and brand were not inherited from IBM. The design language of IdeaPad differs markedly from ThinkPad and has a more consumer-centric look and feel.
On September 21, 2016, Lenovo confirmed that its Yoga series is not designed to be compatible with Linux operating systems, which they know is impossible to install Linux on some models and is not compatible. This came as a result of the media coverage of the problems that users were having when trying to install Ubuntu on several Yoga models, including the 900 ISK2, 900 ISK For Business, 900S and 710, which went back to deactivation Lenovo and the removal of support for the AHCI storage mode for the device's solid-state drive in the computer's BIOS, in favor of a RAID mode that is only compatible with the Windows 10 drivers that come with the system.
All IdeaCentre are all-in-one machines that combine the processor and monitor into one unit. The desks were described by HotHardware as "uniquely designed." The first IdeaCentre desktop, the IdeaCentre K210, was announced by Lenovo on June 30, 2008. While the IdeaCentre line consists only of desktop computers, it shares design elements and features with the IdeaPad line. One of those features was Veriface facial recognition technology.
At CES 2011, Lenovo announced the launch of four IdeaCentre desktop computers: the A320, B520, B320 and C205. In the fall of 2012, the company introduced the most powerful IdeaCentre A720, with a 27-inch touch screen and Windows 8. With a TV tuner and HDMI input, the A720 can also serve as a multimedia hub or PC from home theater.
In 2013, Lenovo added a desktop computer to the IdeaCentre line. The Lenovo IdeaCentre Horizon Table PC, presented at the International CES 2013, is a 27-inch touch screen computer designed to be flat for simultaneous use by several people. Thanks to its use of Windows 8, Horizon can also function as a desktop computer when installed vertically.
The Legion line of consumer-oriented laptops was released in February 2017. The Legion brand is the result of Lenovo's own research and development for the computer-loving public. Therefore, Lenovo wanted to attack this market with a clear difference, their computers do not affect too much the pocket of the buyers who compare them with other cheaper brands.
Like the IdeaPad line, the Legion series was made exclusively by Lenovo for the so-called "gamers": it was inspected that Lenovo made partnerships with other brands that were present in this market, one spoke of Razer at first, but Lenovo decided to decline Given this option, he stated that this project could be carried out autonomously.
- 1981: IBM PCD presents its first personal computer: the IBM PC.
- 1984: IBM PCD presents a first mobile computer: the IBM mobile PC weighing 13.5 kilos. With an initial capital investment of just RMB 200,000, (USD 25,000), Lenovo's founding president, Liu Chuanzhi, together with 10 collaborators who share the same ideology, creates the New Technology Developer Inc. (predecessor of Legend Group) funded by Chinese Academy of Sciences.
- 1987: IBM PCD introduces the Personal System/2 personal computer. Legend successfully implants the card and more with Chinese Legend characters.
- 1988: The card with Chinese characters from Legend receives the highest award for the national scientific-technological progress of China (National Science-Technology Progress Award). Creation of Legend Hong Kong.
- 1989: Creation of Beijing Legend Computer Group Co.
- 1990: The first Legend PC is launched. Legend goes from being an agent for importing computer products to producing and selling computer products with its own brand. The China Torch Program ratifies and accepts Legend PCs.
- 1992: IBM PCD introduces ThinkPad, the first notebook in the industry with a 10.4-inch color thin film transistor (TFT) screen and a TrackPoint pointer (red ball). Legend introduces the Home PC concept (personal computer) and Legend Home + 1 + 1 computers penetrate the market.
- 1993: Legend enters the Pentium era and creates China's first "586" PC.
Legend establishes a network of computers for 1 + 1 consumption.
- 1994: IBM PCD presents the first notebook in the industry with integrated CD-ROM: the ThinkPad 755CD. Legend is listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange. The corporate PC division of Legend is formally created.
- 1995: IBM PCD introduces the "butterfly" keyboard. IBM PCD moves from Boca Raton (Florida) to Raleigh (North Carolina). Legend introduces the first server with its own brand.
- 1996: Legend becomes the Chinese market leader for the first time. Legend introduces the first Legend brand notebook.
- 1997: IBM PCD presents the first laptop in the industry with DVD-ROM: the ThinkPad 770. Legend signs an intellectual property contract with Microsoft, the most advantageous deal that China closed at that time. Legend launches the first multifunction laser printer.
- 1998: IBM PCD presents the first ThinkLight device in the industry, a small light that illuminates the ideal keyboard for low-light environments such as an airplane.
- 1998: The Legend PC was made that adds up to one million. The president of Intel, Andy Grove, attends the ceremony and takes the PC to exhibit it in the collection of the Intel museum. Legend opens the first Legend Shop.
- 1999: IBM PCD presents the first mini-notebook in the sector, with a weight that does not reach 1.3 kilos, standard ports and a keyboard whose size is 95 percent of the full size. IBM PCD announces its withdrawal from the retail market. IBM PCD presents the first PC in the industry with an integrated security chip. Legend becomes the first PC provider in the Asia Pacific region and leads the Chinese national ranking of the top 100 electronics companies. Legend launches its Internet PC pioneer, with the “One-Touch-to-the-Net” function, which facilitates access to the Internet for millions of PC users.
- 2000: IBM PCD sells its ThinkPad Laptop that adds up to 10 million. Legend shares are rising sharply in value and Legend becomes the constituent value of the Hang Seng index, the most iconic state-of-the-art value in Hong Kong. Legend is among the top 10 best-targeted PC system providers in the world. Legend is considered "The main company of the People's Republic of China" in the world's leading financial magazines.
- 2001: An IBM laptop with a built-in security chip becomes the first in the sector to obtain the certification of the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance, an industry organization that sets data security standards. Legend is successfully independent of Digital China Co. Ltd., which is listed separately on the Hong Kong stock exchange. Yang Yuanqing is named president and CEO of Legend. Legend is the first to introduce the concept of “digital home” and launches the accessory enablement PC.
- 2002: IBM PCD introduces ImageUltra and Rapid Restore, the first automatic data recovery technologies in its class. IBM PCD announces the outsourcing agreement of desktop systems with Sanmina-SCI. Legend presents its first convention on technological innovation, "Legend World 2002", which opens the "technological era" of Legend. Legend introduces its visionary concept for the future of applications and technological development, its collaborative applications project, as well as its implementation strategies for this type of applications.
- 2002: Legend supercomputer, DeepComp 1800, goes on the market. It is the first computer in China with 1,000 GFLOP (floating point operations per second) and the fastest system in the country for private use. It occupies the 43rd position in the list of the 500 fastest computers in the world. Announcement of the mobile phone joint venture that marks the formal entry of Legend into the mobile phone market.
- 2003: IBM PCD presents the first laptop in the sector with an extended life battery with autonomy of up to 11 hours. IBM PCD presents its line of ThinkCentre desktop systems (successor to the NetVista line). IBM PCD introduces Active Protection System, the first laptop in the sector with an airbag that protects the hard drive and data in the event of a system crash. IBM PCD sells its ThinkPad laptop which amounts to 20 million. Legend announces the creation of its new “Lenovo” logo and prepares for expansion in the international market. Lenovo, based on collaborative application technology, creates the IGRS working group together with some large companies and the Ministry of the Chinese information industry to promote the establishment of the industry standard. Lenovo conducts the Lenovo Tech Show 2003 campaign nationwide to promote its innovation. Lenovo develops DeepComp 6800 in November 2003 with great success. The company is ranked number 14 on the global list.
- 2004: IBM PCD presents the ultra-compact ThinkCentre laptop, the size of which does not exceed that of a cereal box. IBM PCD introduces the first laptop that incorporates a fingerprint reader. IBM PCD sells its PC that adds up to 100 million (including portable and desktop systems). Lenovo becomes an international Olympic partner. It is the first Chinese company to become a computer equipment partner of the IOC. Lenovo decides to develop the rural market with the launch of the “Yuanmeng” PC series, designed for particular urban users. Lenovo and IBM announce an agreement whereby Lenovo will acquire IBM Personal Computing Division, its global PC business (portable and desktop systems). The acquisition gives way to a leading global PC leader (the third most important company).
- 2005: Lenovo completes the acquisition of the IBM Personal Computing Division, making this company a new international IT competitor and the third largest IT supplies company in the world.
- 2005: Lenovo announces the closure of a strategic investment of US $350 million with three major companies with its own capital: Texas Pacific Group, General Atlantic LLC and Newbridge Capital LLC.
- 2005: Lenovo creates a new Innovation Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, to allow collaboration between customers, partners, solutions for suppliers and ISVs, in the creation of new IT solutions.
- 2005: Lenovo presents the thinnest, lightest and safest Tablet PC on the market, the ThinkPad X41 Tablet.
- 2005: Lenovo introduces the first widescreen ThinkPad with built-in wireless WAN technology, the ThinkPad Z60, available for the first time with a titanium cover.
- 2005: Lenovo becomes the world's largest PC provider with biometric compatibility by selling its one millionth PC with integrated fingerprint reader.
- 2005: William J. Amelio is appointed CEO and President of Lenovo.
- 2006: Lenovo introduces the first ThinkPad dual-core laptops, which improve productivity and increase battery life up to 11 hours.
- 2006: Lenovo technology supports the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, with 5,000 desktop PCs, 350 servers and 1,000 laptops. Lenovo also offers seven Internet rooms for Olympic athletes and visitors.
- 2006: The first Lenovo products outside of China make their debut in the international market.
- 2007: Lenovo wins the design competition for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Torch with a design called "The Cloud of Promise." The company used 30 people between engineers and designers working for 10 months.
- 2007: Lenovo becomes the main sponsor of the WilliamsF1 team.
- 2007: Lenovo announces that it will begin marketing laptops with preinstalled Linux.
- 2009: Lenovo announces the sale of the distribution Ubuntu of Linux preinstalled. Lenovo becomes the official supplier of the Vodafone McLaren Mercedes Formula 1 team, which achieved the first sales in Spain.
- 2010: Lenovo begins mass distribution of its first "all-in-one" AIO C300 PC.
- 2011: Lenovo buys the NEC Computer Division to form the largest company in Asia and the East.
- 2011: Lenovo announces the launch of its three tablet models, the “IdeaPad K1 with Android 3.1”, the “IdeaPad P1 with Windows 7” and the “ThinkPad with Android 3.1”.
- 2012: Lenovo buys the largest Brazilian appliance manufacturer CCE, but in 2015, the deal was undone.
- 2014: Lenovo buys the IBM server business for 1690 million euros.
- 2014: Lenovo buys 20% of Motorola Mobility from Google for $2,910 million.
- 2016: Lenovo renames Motorola under the brand Moto and launches Lenovo Vibe.
- 2016: It is announced that all Lenovo phones will use the Moto brand.
- 2017: He enters the world of e-sports, creating the Lenovo Legion team for the VFO in Fifa17 (Spain).
- 2017: Lenovo undoes the previous renaming "Moto" to "Motorola" again (Motorola Moto).
- 2017: Lenovo buys Fujitsu's computer division in November.
- 2018: Lenovo becomes a sponsor of the Scuderia Ferrari team.
- 2018: Lenovo presents the 'smartphone' Z5 Pro GT 855, the first with Snapdragon 855.
Problems installing Linux
In September 2016, the news spread that Lenovo did not allow the installation of Linux on their notebooks, with the company Microsoft being responsible. However, neither Microsoft had anything to do, nor Lenovo acted premeditated. The issue was resolved through a BIOS update.